Posted in Conversation Classes, Listening Classes, Proficiency, Reading Classes

Reading, Video & Debate: Compulsory Vaccination

Person Holding A Vaccine

This is another guest post by Soleil García Brito. It is a reading, listening and speaking lesson plan for B2+ students based around the topic of compulsory vaccination. Download the materials below:

The Vaccine debate – Teacher’s notes

Warmer

Short answers

  • What is a vaccine and how do they work?
  • Have you been vaccinated for anything?
  • Would you get vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 if a vaccine were available?
  • Do you think vaccinations should be compulsory?

Video – Why are some children still not getting the MMR vaccine? | ITV News

Watch the video and answer the questions below

  1. Are vaccinations compulsory in England?
  2. Who is to blame for the falling rate of vaccinations, according to the video report?
  3. Do the British public trust health care professionals?
  4. Where does the British Health Secretary stand on making vaccinations compulsory?
  5. How is the British government planning to stop the spread of fake news about vaccines?

Watch the video again and listen for the words in the gaps below. Discuss the meaning of the words or phrases in the gaps.

Teacher tip → Play twice if necessary.

  1. In the UK it’s _________ parents whether their child gets vaccinated for measles
  2. But if we want to _________ measles outbreaks don’t spread, we need ninety five percent of the public to be vaccinated
  3. But why are we so _________ about measles right now?
  4. More than half a million children in the UK _________ on the MMR jab between 2010 and 2017
  5. Some ________________ what’s known as the anti-vax movement
  6. Many worry that the MMR jab can cause autism, a theory ___________ from the British former doctor Andrew Wakefield
  7. In 1998, he published a paper claiming there was a link, but his results were later completely _________ and he was __________ the doctors’ register.
  8. ___________, Public Health England believes social media isn’t a major factor
  9. Health Secretary Matt Hancock has refused to _________ children being kept out of schools if they haven’t been vaccinated against measles, but infection experts have said that this drastic solution could ________ a rise in the anti-vaxxer
  10. … to remove any post promoting false or misleading information about ______, like MMR.

 

Transcript

In the UK it’s up to parents whether their child gets vaccinated for measles. Last year 87% of children received their full dose of MMR; that stands for measles mumps and rubella. That number sounds pretty high, right? But if we want to ensure measles outbreaks don’t spread, we need ninety five percent of the public to be vaccinated. This is called herd immunity. But why are we so concerned about measles right now? Measles is one of the most contagious diseases; it can cause brain damage, blindness, and it can even be fatal. And now in England cases are rising. They’ve nearly quadrupled in the last year, going from 259 in 2017 to 966 in 2018. More than half a million children in the UK missed out on the MMR jab between 2010 and 2017, and each year the number of those being vaccinated is dropping. So why are vaccination rates falling? Well it’s not just the UK. In America 2.6 million children have gone unvaccinated. Some put this down to what’s known as the anti-vax movement. Anti-vaxxers believed that certain vaccines are not safe. Many worry that the MMR jab can cause autism, a theory stemmed from the British former doctor Andrew Wakefield. In 1998, he published a paper claiming there was a link, but his results were later completely debunked and he was struck off the doctors’ register. Since then the National Autistic Society has said there is no link between autism and the vaccine, but the scare story still continues to spread. Go online in search of information around vaccinations and you’ll find social media is awash with anti-vaccination propaganda. But is the anti-vax movement to blame? Actually, Public Health England believes social media isn’t a major factor. It’s surveyed parents and found that 93% viewed health care professionals as the most trusted source of information on immunization. In fact, public health England think the key to better vaccination rates is sending out reminders to parents and making GP appointments more convenient so that vaccinations can actually happen. So what can be done to increase vaccinations? Well, in France vaccinating children became a legal requirement last year. Could that be adopted here? Health Secretary Matt Hancock has refused to rule out children being kept out of schools if they haven’t been vaccinated against measles, but infection experts have said that this drastic solution could fuel a rise in the anti-vaxxer movement. For the moment the governor plans to stop the spread of fake news by introducing legislation that would force social media companies, like Facebook, to remove any post promoting false or misleading information about jabs, like MMR.

 

Debate – Set up – Jigsaw Reading

Discuss with your partner or group whether your point is for or against compulsory vaccination. Then, summarize the main ideas to present them to the rest of the class.

Teacher tip → there are 12 statements in total: 3 PRO, 3 AGAINST, and each of their counterpoints. This activity can be structured in many ways depending on class size, level and time constraints. Here is a suggested way of structuring the activity:

 

Jigsaw Reading Phase 1:

  1. Cut up the texts; keep points and counterpoints separate.
  2. Split class into pairs or groups of 3 depending on numbers. Ideally you want either 3 or 6 groups.
  3. Give out one point to each pair/group. Don’t give out the counterpoints for now.
  4. Instruct students to read their text and first decide if it is a arguing for or against compulsory vaccination. Have for/against columns on the board and keep track of the points. Students could even come to the board to write their points in the column.
  5. Have students reread their texts and summarize it in their own words.
  6. Clear up any doubts about meaning.
  7. Students present their summaries to the class.

 

Jigsaw Reading Phase 2:

  1. Now tell students that you have counterpoints to each of the points they’ve just looked at.
  2. Give out the counterpoint texts to each group randomly.
  3. Students must now match their counterpoint to the previous points from phase 1 and then summarize it for the class.
  4. Clear up any doubts about meaning.

 

Language Focus:

Have students look at the underlined words and phrases in the texts they’ve looked at; have them infer meaning from context and take note of collocations and useful expressions.

 

Debate

You can now conduct a class debate on the topic. Divide the class into two teams and decide which team will argue for and against compulsory vaccination. Encourage students to include their own ideas and opinions as well as the points and counterpoints previously studied. You can structure the debate in many ways. Follow the link below for language for debating and suggested debate structures: https://freeenglishlessonplans.com/2017/11/17/debating-at-higher-levels/

 

POINTS FOR COMPULSORY VACCINATION

POINT 1

It’s the state’s duty to protect its community

In an industrialized country such as the USA, unvaccinated people were 35-times more likely to contract measles than vaccinated ones; in developing countries where these viruses are still endemic, the risk would be considerably higher. After a scare about possible side effects of the MMR jab, in 2008 there was a drop in voluntary vaccinations in a part of London (Lewisham). In that part of London only 64.3 % of children were vaccinated and in that year the district accounted for one third of all South-East London measles cases. Unless there is a 95 % vaccination, there is a great threat to public health of infection outbreaks. It is therefore the role and duty of the state to understand these issues and possible threats and provide protection and care, in this case, in the form of immunization.

COUNTERPOINT 1

Voluntary immunization should be enough

Compulsory vaccination is an example of the tyranny of the majority even if it is coming from a democratic government. And in a community that praises itself as democratic and respectful to wishes of others it is in no way acceptable that the rights of some get abused by the wishes of others. Besides, The United Kingdom does not have a system of compulsory health care, but disease outbreaks are still prevented due to the voluntary immunizations. The pediatrician Miriam Fine-Goulden explains: “The risk of contracting these infections is only so low at present because the voluntary uptake of immunizations has been high enough (in most cases) to reduce the chance of contact with those organisms through the process of herd immunity.”

 

POINT 2

Duty to protect children

Each year millions of children worldwide die of preventable diseases before the age of five. The argument presented here is that the state needs to protect the child and immunize him or her from preventable diseases as obviously the child does not have the capabilities at this stage to make informed decisions of their own. The United Nations Right to Liberty and Security of the Person treaty, article 6.2 supports this view – State Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child.

COUNTERPOINT 2

Forcing parents to vaccinate could backfire

The key issue at stake here is who gets to decide about the healthcare needs of children – the authorities or parents? Critics of enforced vaccinations argue that it may have the opposite effect to that desired, and end up demonizing parental choice. Indeed, adopting compulsory vaccinations can be counter-productive, causing concerned parents to withdraw their kids from school and entrenching anti-vaccination sentiment.

 

POINT 3

Compulsory vaccines are a financial relief on health system

Commonly used vaccines are a cost-effective and preventive way of promoting health, compared to the treatment of acute or chronic disease. In the U.S. during the year 2001, routine childhood immunizations against seven diseases were estimated to save over $40 billion per birth-year cohort in overall social costs including $10 billion in direct health costs, and the societal benefit-cost ratio for these vaccinations was estimated to be $16.5 billion. Additionally, if less people get sick, productivity rates remain high and less money is destined to social and health programs.

 

COUNTERPOINT 3

The cost of vaccines is itself high

Vaccines themselves are expensive to develop in the lab and to mass-produce for widespread compulsory vaccination programs. The cost of developing a vaccine—from research and discovery to product registration—is estimated to be between $200 million and $500 million per vaccine. In addition to these upfront costs, organizing compulsory vaccination programs across an entire country can be very complicated and expensive. For instance, mechanisms must be set in place to ensure that the program is indeed compulsory, which means establishing a database of those that have and have not received the vaccine.

 

 

POINTS AGAINST COMPULSORY VACCINATION

POINT 1

Compulsory vaccination violates the individuals’ right to bodily integrity

In most countries and declarations, one of the most basic human rights is the one to bodily integrity. It sets down that you have a right not to have your body or person interfered with. This means that the State may not do anything to harm your body without consent. The NHS (National Health Service) explains: “You must give your consent (permission) before you receive any type of medical treatment, from a simple blood test to deciding to donate your organs after your death. If you refuse a treatment, your decision must be respected.” In the case of vaccination this principle should be also applied.

 

COUNTERPOINT 1

Social responsibility trumps individual rights

The problem with the idea of “individual rights” is that those refusing vaccines on account of this effectively violate the same right for other people if, and when, there is an outbreak of the disease against which the vaccine is protecting. Those who wish to opt-out of vaccination (often on behalf of their children, who have no say in the matter) are classic free riders, hoping to benefit from the more responsible behavior of the rest of society. As it is assumed that most of society see it as a responsibility and a duty to protect others.

 

POINT 2

It is a parental right to decide whether or not to vaccinate their child

Through birth, the child and the parent have a binding agreement that is supported within the society. This agreement involves a set of rights and duties aimed at, and justified by, the welfare of the child. As custodian, the parent is under the obligation to work and organize his or her life around the welfare and development of the child, for the child’s sake. Therefore, the parent is endowed with a special kind of authority over the child. If the parent believes the child will be safer and better off in society without being given vaccine it is the parent’s right to decide not to give vaccination to the child.

 

COUNTERPOINT 2

Parents do not have absolute rights to decide for their children

An adult vaccine refusal and a parental vaccine refusal are not the same. Parents do not have absolute right to put their child at a risk even if they themselves are willing to accept such a risk for him or herself. Minors have a right to be protected against infectious diseases and society has the responsibility to ensure welfare of children who may be harmed by their parents’ decisions. As seen not to vaccine children can represent a danger for their future, there should be no ultimate power of parents to prevent vaccine jabs.

 

POINT 3

Vaccines have severe side effects

Some of the used vaccines may have severe side effects, therefore we should let every individual assess the risk and make choices on their own. Besides introducing foreign proteins and even live viruses into the bloodstream, each vaccine has its own preservative, neutralizer and carrying agent. Evidence also suggests that immunizations damage the immune system itself, because vaccines trick the body so that it will no longer initiate a generalized response. In addition, the long-term persistence of viruses and other foreign proteins within the cells of the immune system has been implicated in a number of chronic diseases, such as allergies. Moreover, MMR vaccines may cause a child who is genetically predisposed to have autism, due to the Thimerosal, which is a compound that contains mercury.

 

COUNTERPOINT 3

Lack of evidence for prevalence of severe side effects

First of all, many of the arguments suggesting vaccination is dangerous refer to observations from the 60s or 70s. Since then, more recent studies have reported no link between MMR vaccines and autism. Similarly, a 2011 study from the German Health Institute comparing the prevalence of allergies and infections in vaccinated and unvaccinated children and teenagers, concluded that there was no difference between them, other than the frequency of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as mumps or measles.

 

The text was reproduced and adapted from http://www.idebate.org with the permission of the International Debate Education Association.

Copyright © 2005 International Debate Education Association. All Rights Reserved

 

 

Posted in Conversation Classes, Guest Posts, Vocabulary Classes

Guest Post: Long time, no see! – Adjacency Pairs

Image result for long time no see

Image credit: Language Boat – WordPress.com

Follow me on twitter @RobbioDobbio

This is the second in a series of guest posts by my friend and colleague Josh Widdows, an English teacher and teacher trainer at International House Barcelona.

This is a speaking lesson for strong intermediate/upper-intermediate students aimed at helping our learners to respond more appropriately to each other´s utterances. It highlights the importance of listening carefully and how to reply with better intonation and stress in a natural way. An enjoyable speaking lesson that gives students fun controlled and freer speaking opportunities in a ´mingling´ activity.

Download the PowerPoint, lesson procedure, audio and handout below. There are two different version, one for adults and one for teenagers:

Tapescript

 

Complete the gaps with 1 or 2 words:

 

Conversation 1

 

A:     Good evening.

B:      Hi.

A:     Is anyone sitting here?

B:      No.

A:     Would you _____­­­­__ if I joined you?

B:      Not _____­­­­__ . That would be lovely.

A:     Can I get you a drink?

B:      That’s very _____­­­­__ . I’d love one.

 

Conversation 2

 

A:     It was lovely to see you again, Sue. We really enjoyed ourselves.

Thank you so _____­­­­__  for having us to stay.

B:      Not at all. It’s _____­­­­__ .

A:     But it was really kind of you to put up with all of us, and the animals.

B:      It’s no problem at all. You must come again soon.

A:     Thanks for the offer. We’ll do that. See you again soon, then!

B:      Yes. Have a good trip.

 

Conversation 3

 

A:     I passed!

B:      Oh, well done…at last! Congratulations! We’ll have to celebrate.

A:     Yes. How _____­­­­__ opening a bottle of champagne?

B:      Brilliant _____­­­­__ .

 

Conversation 4

 

A:     Do you fancy _____­­­­__ with us to the

theatre to see Murder in the Garden?

B:      I _____­­­­__ , but you’ll never _____­­­­__ what. My sister saw it yesterday.

A:     Really?

B:      Yes, and I’m afraid she said it wasn’t very good.

 

 

Now listen and check.

 

 

 

Look at the 6 underlined pairs of phrases in the dialogues.

What is their function?

 

Conversation 1

 

A:       Good evening.

B:       Hi.

A:       Is anyone sitting here?

B:       No.

A:       Would you mind if I joined you?

A     B:       Not at all. That would be lovely.

A:       Can I get you a drink?

B     B:       That’s very kind. I’d love one.

 

Conversation 2

 

A:       It was lovely to see you again, Sue. We really enjoyed ourselves.

Thank you so much for having us to stay.

C     B:       Not at all. It’s a pleasure.

A:       But it was really kind of you to put up with all of us and the animals.

B:       It’s no problem at all. You must come again soon.

A:       Thanks for the offer. We’ll do that. See you again soon, then!

B:       Yes. Have a good trip.

 

Conversation 3

 

A:       I passed!

D     B:       Oh, well done…at last! Congratulations! We’ll have to celebrate.

A:       Yes. How about opening a bottle of champagne?

E     B:       Brilliant idea.

 

Conversation 4

 

A:       Do you fancy coming with us to the

theatre to see Murder in the Garden?

F     B:       I would, but you’ll never guess what. My sister saw it yesterday.

A:       Really?

B:       Yes, and I’m afraid she said it wasn’t very good.

 

Match the function to the sentences:

                                                                                Letter

  1. Saying thanks/responding to thanks ______
  2. Giving good news/responding to good news ______
  3. Asking permission/giving permission ______
  4. Inviting/declining an invitation ______
  5. Making a suggestion/responding to a suggestion ______
  6. Making an offer/accepting an offer ______

 

Now think about the sentence stress and connected speech:

 

 

Posted in Conversation Classes, Proficiency, Reading Classes

C1/C2 Reading & Conversation: Barcelona Anti-Tourism March

Image result for barcelona anti tourism

Image credit: Smart Meetings

Article credit: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/29/barcelona-residents-protest-high-rents-fuelled-by-tourism

Follow me on twitter @RobbioDobbio

This is a lesson plan based around an article from the Guardian newspaper about an anti-tourism march that took place in Barcelona last year. Download the lesson plan, key and power point below:

warmer reading tourism

Barcelona tourism effect article + key

Procedure

Warmer: Predict text topic from key words

Project the power point and have students try to guess what the text they’re going to read is about by flashing up the picture and the keywords 2 at a time. Students continue predicting until all the key words are visible.

Article: Reading comprehension, vocab focus and discussion

Go through the activities on the hand out, answer key for comprehension questions is at the bottom.

Barcelona marches to curb negative effects of tourism boom

Community groups join forces to protest over soaring level of rents fuelled by a big rise in visitor numbers

Behind banners reading “Barcelona is not for sale” and “We will not be driven out”, some 2,000 people staged an “occupation” of the Rambla, the city’s famed boulevard, on Saturday.

The protest was organised by a coalition of more than 40 resident and community groups from all over the city, not just the neighbourhoods most directly affected by mass tourism.

Visitor numbers have grown exponentially in recent years. In 2016 an estimated 9 million people stayed in hotels and a further 9 million in holiday apartments. In addition, the city received around 12 million day-trippers arriving by car and train or on cruise ships.

Tourists looked on bemused as the banners were unfurled at the top of the Rambla, beside the Canaletes fountain.

“I don’t understand. What do they mean, Barcelona is not for sale?” asked Qais from Kuwait. “It’s not what we were expecting, but I can see their point,” he said when it had been explained to him. He added: “Things are really bad in the Middle East,” which put things in perspective. “Does it mean they don’t want us here?” his wife asked. Birgid from Denmark was less sympathetic. “Tourism brings in lots of money to the city, doesn’t it? I’m sure it’s changed the city, but that’s life, isn’t it?”

Roger from Wigan, here on his second visit, commented: “I can understand it, the place is very commercial. And if I understand what’s written on some of these placards, they are complaining that tourism is forcing their rents up. I can sympathise with that.”

This was one of the key issues behind the march, as the money to be made from holiday lets is forcing rents up and driving people out of the city.

Christine, an Englishwoman on the march who has lived in Barcelona for more than 20 years, said: “We’ve been renting our flat in the old town for 17 years. In that time I reckon we’ve paid around €150,000 in rent. Now they want to kick us out because they can make more money renting it out to tourists.”

The march coincides with a new law passed by Barcelona city council on Friday that, for the first time, seeks to curb tourism. The special urban plan for tourist accommodation aims to limit the number of beds on offer from hotels and apartments by imposing a moratorium on building new hotels. No new licences will be issued for tourist apartments.

There are currently 75,000 hotel beds in the city and around 100,000 beds in tourist flats, at least half of them unlicensed and illegal. The city is at loggerheads with Airbnb, the principal letting agency. Last year the council fined Airbnb and HomeAway €600,000 each for advertising unlicensed apartments.

Airbnb argues that the overwhelming majority of its clients in the city are people who are letting out rooms as a way of making ends meet during Spain’s prolonged financial crisis.

That may be true up to a point, but it masks the real problem, which is speculation,” says Daniel Pardo, a member of the Neighbourhood Assembly for Sustainable Tourism. Yet people are free to visit the city, so what’s to stop them?

One thing we could do is stop spending millions on promoting tourism,” says Pardo. “We’re subsidising tourism with public money, by exploiting workers in the service economy and exploiting the infrastructure of the city, which we citizens pay for. Furthermore, tourism is distorting the economy and there is little support for anyone who wants to establish non-tourist enterprises.”

The good-humoured march moved to the seaward end of the Rambla, where one of the organisers read out a manifesto calling for more local shops, more homes, rather than businesses, and control of the pollution caused by private cars and cruise ships. “It’s a great turnout,” one of the marchers quipped. “There are more people here than at Trump’s inauguration. The citizens have never been consulted about this, although they’re the ones who suffer the consequences and aren’t enjoying the benefits. [We’re asking for] the debate to be opened to everyone and that we reach some other resolution of the problem, instead of the present one based on continuous growth.”

Comprehension Questions

  1. Who organised the march?
  2. How many tourists did Barcelona receive in total last year?
  3. How did tourists feel about the march?
  4. What is the main detrimental effect that tourism is having on the city’s residents?
  5. How has the council responded to the rising number of tourists?
  6. How does airbnb defend itself?
  7. What suggestions does Daniel Pardo make?
  8. The march was very serious and angry true/false

Language Focus

Work with a partner, look at the underlined expressions in the text, what do you think they mean?

Now try to complete the expressions from memory:

  1. This was one of the k____ issues behind the march,
  2. The protest was organised by a c____________ of more than 40 resident and community groups.
  3. Visitor numbers have grown e_______________ in recent years.
  4. Now they want to k_______ us out because they can make more money renting it o_______ to tourists.”
  5. The money to be made from h_______ lets is f_______ rents up and d________ people out of the city.
  6. They are complaining that tourism is forcing their rents up. I can s________ with that.
  7. The city is at l____________ with Airbnb.
  8. A new law p_________ by Barcelona city council on Friday that, for the first time, s_________ to c___________ tourism.
  9. The special urban plan for tourist accommodation a______ to limit the number of beds ____ offer from hotels and apartments by i__________ a m__________ on building new hotels.
  10. Airbnb argues that the o___________ majority of its clients in the city are people who are l___________ out rooms as a way of m_______ ends m________ during Spain’s prolonged financial crisis.
  11. “That m_______ be true up to a p________, but it masks the real problem, which is speculation,”
  12. The citizens have never been c__________ about this, although they’re the ones who s_________ the consequences and aren’t e_________ the b___________.
  13. “It’s a great t____________,”

Language of opinion

Complete the sentences with one word to make expressions of opinion.

  1. F_____________ where I stand,
  2. In my h_____________ opinion,
  3. As f________ as I’m concerned,
  4. A_______ I see it,
  5. I don’t have very s___________ views on the matter but,…
  6. I t___________ to agree with people who say…
  7. If you a______ me, I’d say that…
  8. I’m co___________ that…
  9. From my p_______ of v__________,
  10. Speaking from p____________ ex______________,
  11. I’m a big s________________ of…
  12. I’m d_______ against…
  13. I’m a f__________ believer in….

Conversation

  1. What do you think of the march? Are you in agreement with their message?
  2. Would you consider protesting on the issue?
  3. What are the pros and cons of tourism in your city?
  4. How does tourism affect your neighbourhood?
  5. What experiences do you have of the downsides of tourism?
  6. Do you think you have enjoyed the benefits of tourism? In what way?
  7. Do you think tourism should be curbed in any way? If so, how?

Language Development

Look at the language from the text, in what other contexts could you use it?

  • The city’s famed boulevard – what other things could be famed?
  • Stage an occupation – what other things can you stage?
  • A coalition of resident and community groups – what other coalitions can you think of?
  • Visitor numbers have grown exponentially in recent years. – What other things can grow exponentially?
  • “Puts things in perspective” – In what other contexts could you use this expression?
  • Tourism brings in a lot of money. – What other things bring in money for a government/company?
  • “That’s life, isn’t it?” – In what other contexts could you use this expression?
  • A new law passed by the council seeks to curb – What other things would the government pass laws to curb?
  • Now they want to kick us out – what other things could you be kicked out of?
  • The plan aims to limit the number of beds on offer. – What other things could be limited?
  • A manifesto calling for more local shops – What other things could a manifesto or a protest call for?
  • They’re the ones who are suffering the consequences and not enjoying the benefits? – What other things could you suffer the consequences or enjoy the benefits of?

Comprehension Questions Key

  1. Who organised the march? A coalition of residents & community groups
  2. How many tourists did Barcelona receive in total last year? 9+9+12=30million
  3. How did tourists feel about the march? Mixed emotions, some understanding, some bemused
  4. What is the main detrimental effect that tourism is having on the city’s residents? Forcing rents up, driving people out
  5. How has the council responded to the rising number of tourists? Laws to curb tourism, limits on flats, moratorium on new hotels
  6. How does airbnb defend itself? Most hosts are just letting out spare rooms
  7. What suggestions does Daniel Pardo make? Stop subsidising tourism with public money, infrastructure of the city is being exploited by tourism
  8. The march was very serious and angry true/false. false, march was good-humoured
Posted in Conversation Classes, Uncategorized, Young Learners

After Christmas: Find Someone Who…

Image result for after christmas

Image credit: Odyssey

Follow me on twitter @RobbioDobbio

This is an activity designed with young, low-level teens in mind to get them talking about their Christmas holidays using the classic “Find Someone Who…” format. Download the worksheet below.

after-xmas-find-someone-who

After Christmas: Find someone who…

You may need to model some question structures on the board before students start mingling. Remind them to ask follow-up questions to get details of their classmates’ holidays.

  • Speak to everyone in the class.
  • Ask questions to find a person who did each activity, if they say yes, write their name and ask for details.
  • First write the questions.
Activity Person Details
Went on holiday

Did you go on holiday?

Details: Where did you go?

   
Tried some new food

___________________________

___________________________

   
Had a party

___________________________

___________________________

   
Ate McDonald’s

___________________________

___________________________

   
Got some new clothes as a present

___________________________

___________________________

   
Got an electronic present (tablet, console…)

___________________________

___________________________

   
Visited family in a different town/city

___________________________

___________________________

   
Went to the cinema

___________________________

___________________________

   
Went skiing

___________________________

___________________________

   
Played a board game

___________________________

___________________________

 
Posted in Conversation Classes, Proficiency

Debating at Higher Levels

Image result for debate

Image credit: The Merkle

Follow me on twitter @RobbioDobbio

This is a lesson plan for higher levels (C1+) designed to help students develop their discourse management and debating skills. Download the handouts below:

Discourse Analysis: Guardian 5-minute Debates

In this section of the lesson students will watch a video from the Guardian 5-minute debate series in order to analyse the ways in which the speakers structure their arguments and the language they use. The topic of the debate is:

  • Should slang words be banned in the classroom?

In the debate the two speakers (Michael Rosen and Lindsay Johns) are specifically talking about London street slang. A school in South London took the decision to ban street slang from the classroom, the banned words are in the picture below:

slang

If you want to look up any of these words you can use the urban dictionary.

Language to pre-teach:

  • code switching – changing from one language, dialect, or way of speaking to another depending on who you’re speaking to.
  • cultural relativism – the theory that beliefs, customs, and morality exist in relation to the particular culture from which they originate and are not absolute. (What’s considered acceptable in one culture might not be in another)
  • Live in an ivory tower – to be out of touch or to not understand the true reality of a situation. To live in a privileged position and therefore not understand the real world.

Have students watch the debate, while they are watching they should answer these questions:

  • Who wins the debate and why?
  • Useful phrase for debating.
  • Ways of structuring an argument.

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/video/2013/dec/09/should-schools-ban-slang-video-debate

 

Discuss their thoughts in open class.

Give out the transcript and show students the powerpoint. The powerpoint will take them through some of the structural techniques that Michael Rosen uses such as:

  • Conceding/partially agreeing
  • Hedging/being more indirect
  • Asking and answering your own questions
  • Presenting evidence
  • Being emphatic

A Less Formal Debate – Debate-O-Rama Cats vs. Dogs

Now tell students they’re going to watch a less formal debate, the topic is dogs vs. cats. Split the class into two groups: the dog group and the cat group. Each group has to watch the video and and write down the arguments that the two people give to support their animal, i.e dogs are smelly, cats are selfish.

Students watch the video and takes notes. (Video from 1:15)

Give out the debate language handout. Tell students that they are going to recreate the dogs vs. cats debate but using the language on the handout and some of the structural techniques we saw earlier. Give them 8-10 minutes to structure their arguments. The debate will follow the following structure:

Debate Structure

  1. Opening statement (90 secs)
  2. Cross examination (30 secs)
  3. (repeat)
  4. Rebuttal #1 (30 secs each)
  5. Rebuttal #2 (30 secs each)
  6. Closing Statements (30 secs each)

Award a winner based on the strength of their arguments and how well structured they are. The debate handout has further debate topics for future classes.

Debate Handout:

Language

Opinion

The way I see it,

In my view,

In my opinion, I think that

My view on the matter is…

As far as I understand it,

As far as I’m concerned,

I’d say that…

I personally am (not) a big fan of…

Evidence/Popular Opinion

All the evidence points to/suggests…

I think you’ll find that…

If you ask anyone,…

The vast majority of people would say…

We have no evidence that…

9 out of 10 people would say that…

There’s no evidence to support that whatsoever.

 

Main arguments

I support/oppose the notion that… for the following reason: Firstly,…

The key issue here is…

The real question/dilemma is… (question form)

The critical/crucial factor here is…

It’s vital to remember that…

By far and away the most important point is…

Adding points

What’s more,

On top of that,

Besides that,

Apart from that,

Another thing to consider is…

We shouldn’t forget that…

It’s also worth bearing in mind that…

Rebutting/Cross-Examining

So what you’re saying is…

So let me get this straight…

Correct me if I’m wrong but…

You’re not seriously suggesting that…, are you?

You can’t possibly be saying that…

I feel I must also disagree with you about…

Conceding/Partially Agreeing

I admit that your point about… may be true, however,

I take/see your point about…

Let’s say I agree with the idea of…

I hear what you’re saying, but…

Conclusion

In a nutshell,

So to sum up,

So in summary,

So to wrap up,

So as I was saying,

All in all,

Debate Structure

1.       Opening statement (90 secs)

2.       Cross examination (30 secs)

3.       (repeat)

4.       Rebuttal #1 (30 secs each)

5.       Rebuttal #2 (30 secs each)

6.       Closing Statements (30 secs each)

Low-stakes Debate Topics

(Credit to debatable youtube page)

Dogs vs. Cats Superpowers:

Flight vs. Invisibility

Pancakes vs. Waffles Hot dogs vs. Hamburgers French fries vs. Patatas bravas
Beer vs. Wine Whisky vs. Rum Are ghost real? Does the internet do more good or bad? Camping, good or bad?
Taylor Swift vs. Ariana Grande Soup vs. salad Pasta vs. pizza Is it ok to pee in the shower? Tea vs. Coffee
Coke vs. Pepsi Burger King vs. MacDonald’s Chinese food vs. Japanese food City vs. Country Morning Showers vs. Night Showers
Posted in Conversation Classes

Micro Presentations/Elevator Pitches

Image result for elevator pitch

This is a lesson plan designed for higher levels (B2+) to help students develop their presentation skills. Download the phrase sheet and topic cards below:

Micro Presentations

Preparation

Prepare a 2-minute example presentation on a topic close to your heart using as much of the language from the handout as you can.

Procedure

Tell students that you’re going to give a presentation, tell them that they need to make notes on: the main idea, supporting ideas and impressive language.

Give your presentation and then give students a minute to compare their notes and share in open class.

Give out the handout and have students look for the expressions that they heard, clear up any doubts students may have about the language.

Students then choose presentation topics for each other. Give them 2-3 minutes to prepare their presentations. Pairs then join together to make groups of 4. Each member gives their presentation, teacher monitors and takes notes for feedback. Other members of the group note how many expressions their classmates use in their presentations and give them constructive feedback.

Homework: Students prep another micro-presentation for the next class. Topics could include: a hobby, a product sales pitch, a persuasive argument.

Handout

Language

Starting

The thing about… is…

What I find most interesting about… is…

Abbreviating

In a nutshell,

To cut a long story short…

Sequencers

First of all,

To begin with,

First and foremost,

Secondly,

Finally,

Last but not least,

And to top it all off,

Addition

What’s more,

On top of that,

Besides that,

Apart from that,

Another thing to consider is…

We shouldn’t forget that…

It’s also worth bearing in mind that…

Adding Emphasis

(I don’t agree with him) at all.

Without a shadow of a doubt.

By far the best/worst/biggest etc. is…

The park near my house is especially/particularly beautiful

Fillers

You know?

So,

I mean,

In other words

How can I put this?

Contrast/Comparison

On the one hand, on the other hand,

But actually…

But in actual fact…

However

Whereas/while

Conclusion

So to sum up,

So in summary,

So to wrap up,

So as I was saying,

All in all,

Topics

Choose a topic for your partner from the list below, you have two minutes to make notes before giving a two minute micro-presentation.

Tourism in your city How we can save the planet Modern cinema The worst thing about being a teenager The best thing about being a teenager
The most important invention ever Ways to live a healthier life Consumerism The effect the internet is having on society The world in 20 years’ time
The importance of fashion nowadays Sexism in the media Differences between your life and your parents The ideal holiday The most useful subjects at school
Modern music Different pressures that girls and boys face Dating nowadays The most useful thing you own The best way to study for exams
The best place to go on a first date The perfect weekend Smartphone addiction Zoos and pets The best thing to study at uni

 

Posted in Conversation Classes, Exam Preparation Class

CAE Speaking Part 3: Lesson Plan

Image result for CAE exam

Follow me on twitter @RobbioDobbio

Before you use these materials… We’ve created a new podcast aimed at B2+ level English students and teachers alike. You can listen for free at our SoundCloud page below. You can download teacher’s notes to accompany them from our Facebook page or from this blog. All comments and feedback welcome! Give us a like and a share 😉
https://www.facebook.com/2tspodcast/

Here’s a lesson plan I designed with the help of my friend and (ex-) colleague (sniff) Raquel Gomez. It’s based around our attempt to complete a CAE part 3 task. Download the lesson plan pack and audio below:

Lesson Plan and Audio

Students’ Handout

The task

You are going to hear two people completing the part 3 task below:

task part 3

They must first discuss the question in the middle for two minutes. Then they have one more minute to decide which job should receive the highest salary.

First Listen

Cover the transcript below, listen to the audio and answer the following questions:

  1. Which jobs do they talk about?
  2. What different reasons do they give for why the jobs appeal to people?
  3. Which job do they decide deserves the highest salary?

Second Listen

Listen again, this time listen for different phrases and expressions for giving opinion and agreeing and disagreeing.

Third Listen

Now listen again with the transcript and try to fill the blanks.

  • Tim: Errr so _____________?
  • Raquel: Sure
  • Tim: Let’s start with surgeon. Ummm, well __________, I think being a surgeon appeals to people probably because, __________, you’re helping people, you might be saving peoples’ lives and you’re making a big contribution to society
  • Raquel: _________, yeah, ______________ but, _______________? I think that at least in our society teachers should be given more.. they should be empowered maybe more than surgeons because they really can make a change in peoples’ lives.
  • Tim: Yeah I think _____________. They’re definitely very important and I could see why people would want to be a teacher, because of the way they can, you know, help people and educate people.
  • Raquel: Yeah, __________________ both professions here, I think that they are very vocational, like being a surgeon or being a teacher.
  • Tim: _________, yeah, yeah, ______________. Ummm what about the other ones over here? Let’s ___________ a football player, what’s ____________ that?
  • Raquel: Buff I’m not really sure, I don’t think that they have to… How can I put this? Umm, I don’t really like football and I think they just, they’re earning far too much and I don’t buy the idea of like their career is too short.
  • Tim: _____________, surely it’s good to do a job that’s something you love, surely if you’re a big fan of football then if you’re spending all day every day doing, you know, your favourite activity that must be good no?
  • Raquel: Yeah, _______________ and that was my idea when I was talking about vocational jobs before. But still, I think it’s a bit too much, the gap between the payment is just crazy.
  • Tim: Yeah __________. Well so we’ve got to… the ___________ is…
  • Raquel: The ____________ is we have to choose one so…
  • Tim: Yeah, which one should receive the most… the highest salary? Well I’m _________ maybe a surgeon and a teacher, _________________?
  • Raquel: Well it’s true that _____________ the surgeon might save the actual physical life whereas the teacher might just contribute to our long life _______ ummm enrichment or, you know, making people grow so maybe it’s more like long-lasting.
  • Tim: Well ______________ what you were saying about, yeah the contribution to society I think they’re both very important.
  • Raquel: Yes, it’s really difficult to choose between these too.
  • Tim: But maybe you know without the teachers, you wouldn’t have the surgeons…
  • Raquel: ___________
  • Tim: Who’s going to teach the surgeons? So, _____________ teacher?
  • Raquel: Ok, alright.
  • Tim: Ok, perfect.

The Expressions

Check your answers and then put the different expressions below into the boxes based on their meaning.

1.       As I see it,

2.       Shall I start?

3.       What’s your take on that?

4.       You know

5.       How can I put this?

6.       What do you reckon?

7.       Yeah I’d go along with that.

8.       Coming back to what you were saying about…

9.       I’m torn between… and…

10.    At the end of the day…

11.    Sort of/kind of

12.    I take your point but…

13.    Shall we go with…?

14.    Exactly/definitely

15.    It’s also worth bearing in mind that…

16.    You’ve got a point there

 

Starting Giving Opinion Agreeing Disagreeing
 

 

 

 

 

 

     
Asking opinion Adding + Referring Fillers/time-buyers Reaching a conclusion
 

 

 

 

 

 

     

Work with a partner; try to add at least one more expression to each box.

Pronunciation

Look at the expressions below, listen to the expressions and try to take notes about how they’re pronounced. Then try to reproduce them with a partner.

  1. Shall I start?
  2. What do you reckon?
  3. How can I put this?
  4. As I see it,
  5. Yeah, I’d go along with that.
  6. It’s sort of, like a pizza but different.
  7. Shall we go with teacher?
  8. Coming back to what you were saying about teachers…

Scripted Role-play

Decide who is going to be Tim and who is going to be Raquel. Use the transcript on the previous page to recreate the conversation, play close attention to the pronunciation of the expressions.

Your Turn

Find an example of a part 3 task in your textbook and complete it with your partner. See who can use the most expressions, keep count while your completing the task, the winner is the one who uses the most.

 

 

Teacher’s Notes

First Listen

Cover the transcript below, listen to the audio and answer the following questions:

  1. Which jobs do they talk about? Teacher, surgeon and football player
  2. What different reasons do they give for why the jobs appeal to people? Help people, contribute to society, a vocation, doing something you love
  3. Which job do they decide deserves the highest salary? A teacher

Complete Transcript

  • Tim: Errr so shall I start?
  • Raquel: Sure
  • Tim: Let’s start with surgeon. Ummm, well as I see it, I think being a surgeon appeals to people probably because, you know, you’re helping people, you might be saving peoples’ lives and you’re making a big contribution to society
  • Raquel: Absolutely, yeah, you’ve got a point there but, how can I put this? I think that at least in our society teachers should be given more.. they should be empowered maybe more than surgeons because they really can make a change in people’s lives.
  • Tim: Yeah I think I’d go along with that. They’re definitely very important and I could see why people would want to be a teacher, because of the way they can, you know, help people and educate people.
  • Raquel: Yeah, it’s also worth bearing in mind that both professions here I think that they are very vocational, like being a surgeon or being a teacher.
  • Tim: Exactly, yeah, yeah, I couldn’t agree more. Ummm what about the other ones over here? Let’s move on to a football player, what’s your take on that?
  • Raquel: Buff I’m not really sure, I don’t think that they have to… How can I put this? Umm, I don’t really like football and I think they just, they’re earning far too much and I don’t buy the idea of like their career is too short.
  • Tim: I take your point but, surely it’s good to do a job that’s something you love, surely if you’re a big fan of football then if you’re spending all day every day doing, you know, your favourite activity that must be good no?
  • Raquel: Yeah, you’ve got a point there and that was my idea when I was talking about vocational jobs before. But still, I think it’s a bit too much, the gap between the payment is just crazy.
  • Tim: Yeah definitely. Well so we’ve got to… the bottom line is…
  • Raquel: The bottom line is we have to choose one so…
  • Tim: Yeah, which one should receive the most… the highest salary? Well I’m torn between maybe a surgeon and a teacher, what do you reckon?
  • Raquel: Well it’s true that at the end of the day the surgeon might save the actual physical life whereas the teacher might just contribute to our long life sort of ummm enrichment or, you know, making people grow so maybe it’s more like long-lasting.
  • Tim: Well coming back to what you were saying about, yeah the contribution to society I think they’re both very important.
  • Raquel: Yes, it’s really difficult to choose between these too.
  • Tim: But maybe you know without the teachers, you wouldn’t have the surgeons
  • Raquel:
  • Tim: Who’s going to teach the surgeons? So, shall we go with teacher?
  • Raquel: Ok, alright.
  • Tim: Ok, perfect.

The Expressions

Starting Giving Opinion Agreeing Disagreeing
Shall I start?

 

 

 

As I see it, Yeah I’d go along with that.

Exactly/definitely

You’ve got a point there

I take your point but…
Asking opinion Adding + Referring Fillers/time-buyers Reaching a conclusion
What’s your take on that?

What do you reckon?

 

Coming back to what you were saying about…

It’s also worth bearing in mind that…

You know

How can I put this?

Sort of/kind of

I’m torn between… and…

At the end of the day…

Shall we go with…?

 

Pronunciation Notes

  1. Shall I start? – Focus on very weak “Shall” | ʃəl ˈaɪ stɑːt |
  2. What do you reckon? – Waddaya recken | ˈwɒdə jə ˈrekən |
  3. How can I put this? – weak “can” focus on intonation
  4. As I see it – intonation, stress “I”
  5. Yeah, I’d go along with that. – Elision/disappearance of “d” in I’d go, very weak “with” connecting with “that” | wɪðæt |
  6. It’s sort of, like a pizza but different. – “sorta-likea” | sɔːtə ˈlaɪkə|
  7. Shall we go with teacher? – weak “shall” connected with “we” | ʃəwi ɡəʊ |
  8. Coming back to what you were saying about teachers… – weak “were” in “what you were saying” all connected – | ˈwɒtjuwə ˈseɪɪŋ |
Posted in Conversation Classes

Conversation Topic: Everyday Sexism

everyday sexism

Credit: https://everydaysexism.com

This is a conversation lesson for higher-level adults and mature teenagers on the topic of everyday sexism. I have used extracts taken from the fantastic everyday sexism project website. Download the student handout, teacher’s notes, discussion language and powerpoint below:

Everyday Sexism Teacher notes

Everyday Sexism Student handout

Everyday Sexism

Collaborative Speaking Phrases

Teacher’s Notes

Vocabulary

Complete the table

Noun Adjective
Feminism (concept)

Feminist (person)

Feminist
Sexism (concept)

Sexist (person)

Sexist
Stereotype Stereotypical

Look at the vocabulary in bold and discuss the meaning with a partner

  • Talk over sb = to talk loudly at the same time as someone else
  • Talk down to sb = to talk to sb in a condescending way
  • Wolf-whistle at sb = whistle in a suggestive way
  • Catcall = make unwanted, inappropriate, suggestive comments
  • Leer at sb = to look at someone in an obviously sexual way
  • Grope sb = to grab someone in a sexual place, often unsolicited
  • Gender roles = stereotypical jobs/responsibilities
  • Mansplain = when a man explains something to a woman in a condescending, overconfident way.

Discussion

CAE Part 3 Practice

Give out the collaborative language handout and show students the first slide of the powerpoint. If you want to use it as exam practice have them discuss the questions for 2 minutes, then stop them and give them one more minute to answer the following question:

  • In which situation do women experience the most discrimination?

Repeat for 2nd slide then ask:

  • Which is the most effective way to combat sexism?

Sexism in Advertising

Show students the examples of sexist advertising, ask them:

  • Do you think the adverts are sexist? Why/why not?
  • Can you think of any other examples?

Accounts of Everyday Sexism

Have students read the accounts from https://everydaysexism.com and discuss them in pairs or small groups.

Alex

I opened the door for another student recently and didn’t think twice about it, until he said to me, “Oh no, ladies first.” A little taken aback, I told him “You don’t need to worry about that, it’s 2017, we’re past that.” “No we’re not,” he said, and held on to the door that I was already holding open and refused to walk through it. That’s not helpful or chivalrous. That’s just being difficult and wasting my time. Just say thank you and keep walking boys!

Oppressed White Male

‘Man up’ ‘grow a pair’ ‘act like a real man’…all comments that personally I have heard almost every female in my adult life say to or about men at some point or another.

Rarely acknowledged but just as offensive as being told to get back in the kitchen.

Joanne

On a cold and rainy morning having got up on my day off work, solely to walk my daughter to the bus stop. A stranger shouted at me to smile more. It’s a small incident but is another example of how some people feel it’s OK to police women’s presentation of themselves.

Ingrid

I was part of an all female group presenting a project within the architecture school at a very good German University. We were criticized – which is normal, and likely the work wasn’t brilliant – for some window details we had drawn that would have been very difficult to clean in real life. A valuable lesson. Until we were told that as women, we should know about cleaning… and perhaps we should focus on that instead of pursuing architecture.

Laura

My boyfriend is a doctor and I’m a medical student. So, one day, we were chatting at his parent’s house and I was saying that I was really interested in surgery and his father started laughing saying I am too small and petite to be a surgeon, while his mother started asking me who would take care of the children if I became a surgeon. I just let go and laughed it off, but I was really sorry to hear such nice people say those things.

Catcalling Videos

You can either show students the original “10 hours walking in NYC as a woman”

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b1XGPvbWn0A

Or show them the newer parody version in which a woman responds to the catcalling with funny comments:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35KqGNa1FGA

Ask students to recount their experience of catcalling and answer the questions on the handout.

Posted in Conversation Classes, Vocabulary Classes

Love is in the air: Love and Relationship Expressions

Resultat d'imatges de valentine's day

Image credit: Android Authority

Follow me on twitter @RobbioDobbio

This is a lesson plan I designed for Valentine’s day so it’s a bit late but who’s to say you can’t learn about love any day of the year? Download the teacher’s notes and student handout below:

love-story-teachers-notes

valentines-day-lp

A Love Story  – Teacher’s notes

Preparation

Print out enough copies of the students’ handout for each student and enough copies of the pictures for students to work in pairs.

Step 1: Guess the Story

Give each pair a set of pictures and have them guess the order of the story. Tell them “this is the story of a relationship, you have to put it in order” you might want to put some simple sequencers on the board: “First, and then, afterwards, in the end etc.”

When they’ve finished choose a pair to tell their version of the story to the class, ask other groups if their version is different.

Step 2: Listening

Tell students that you are going to tell them the real story and they have to listen and put their pictures in the correct order. Read the story.

Step 3: Reading

Give out the handout but fold the paper so student cannot see the language focus exercise. Students read the story and check that they have the pictures in the correct order.

Step 4: Meaning from context

Have students try to guess the meaning of the expressions in bold from the context in pairs. Then go through the meanings on the board:

  • love at first sight – fall in love when you first see someone
  • check sb out – look at someone to decide if you’re attracted to them
  • pluck up the courage – be brave
  • chat sb up – flirt with sb
  • ask sb out – arrange a date
  • have a lot in common – have shared interests
  • be made for each other – a perfect match/couple
  • fall head over heels in love – fall madly/deeply in love with sb
  • go out with sb – be in a relationship
  • have a row – argue
  • have a thing for sb – be attracted to sb
  • break/split up – end a relationship
  • get back together with sb – repair a relationship
  • get down on one knee – kneel on one knee
  • pop the question – propose to sb
  • tie the knot – get married
  • be in the doghouse with sb – your partner is angry at you
  • worried sick – v. worried
  • on the rocks – in trouble, danger

Step 5: Language focus

Students turn the handout over and try to complete the expressions from memory; they mustn’t look at the text.

Students then unfold the paper to check their answers.

Step 6: Retell the story

Students turn the handout over and attempt to retell the story, using all the expressions, using the pictures as prompts.

Step 7: Personalising

If appropriate, students describe a real relationship from their lives: How did you meet your wife/husband? etc.

The Story

Work with a partner, look at the words in bold, what do you think they mean?

Tony and Tina met at a party, it was love at first sight, they were both checking each other out for a while until Tony plucked up the courage to go and talk to Tina. He chatted her up for a while then at the end of the night he asked for her number. He called her the next day to ask her out and she said yes. They went out for coffee and discovered that they had so much in common, they were made for each other! They fell head over heels in love and started going out with each other straightaway. One night, they had a huge row because Tony thought that Tina had a thing for his best friend. It was a horrible argument and they broke up but it wasn’t long before they got back together because they just couldn’t stay apart.

2 years later Tony got down on one knee and popped the question to Tina, she said yes and 6 months later they tied the knot in front of their friends and family. A few years later Tony was in the doghouse for a few weeks because he got really drunk with his friends and didn’t come home, Tina was worried sick. For a few days it looked like the marriage might be on the rocks but she forgave him eventually and they both lived happily ever after.

Language Focus

Over the story and try to remember the missing words from the expressions.

  1. It was love ____ first sight
  2. They were both c_________ each other out
  3. He chatted her _____ for a while.
  4. He called her the next day to _____ her out.
  5. They had so much in ______________.
  6. They were made ______ each ___________.
  7. They fell __________ over _________ in love.
  8. Tina had a _____________for his best friend.
  9. They ____________ up but it wasn’t long before they got ___________ together
  10. 2 years later Tony got __________ on one knee and ____________ the question to Tina,
  11. 6 months later they _________ the knot in front of their friends and family.
  12. Tony was in the ____________ for a few weeks
  13. Tina was worried ______________.
  14. It looked like the marriage might be on the _____________ but she forgave him.