This is the first of a series of blog posts I plan to write on a little pronunciation project I’m going to run with a C1/C2 group of Catalan/Spanish speaking students. If you’d like to try to run the same experiment with your own groups, you can download the materials I’m going to use at the bottom of this post.
How much can high-level students’ spoken pronunciation be improved by explicit focus on connected speech during class time? The plan is to use both reactive teaching/error correction and explicit, mini-lessons on specific elements of connected speech to work on students’ spoken output. Their progress will then be tracked through the use of submitted voice recordings.
In order to gauge students current level of spoken pronunciation, I wrote a text, which you’ll find below, that contains many elements of connected speech:
I have always wanted to play in a rock and roll band but I can’t seem to find the time to practice enough. If you don’t put in the hours, you’re always going to put off fulfilling an ambition. I want to do it, but the harder I try to pick up the guitar, the busier I get, and at the weekends I tend to go out most nights and those dreams are left back in the corner gathering dust with my guitar.
In class today I collected their baseline recordings. They completed a simple comprehension task on the text, then each recorded themselves reading the text on their own mobile phones and sent me the resulting audio file.
I will also have them record themselves completing a Cambridge “long turn” task during the next class in order to gather a non-scripted sample of their spoken output.
The pronunciation work students will complete will take a number of forms:
Explicit teaching of sentence stress, weak forms, and other elements of connected speech.
Use of tubequizard.com in their free time as ear-training/decoding.
Exposure to a “model” version of the target text, read by me, for students to compare/mimic.
The idea is to spend 15-20 mins a week explicitly focusing on pronunciation and then have students rerecord the original “Dusty Dreams” text in 6-8 weeks and compare the second recording to their original. I will also periodically collect long turn attempts to track the progress of more spontaneous/authentic speech. I also plan to use other texts or dialogue transcripts for later recordings as well as tracking students’ scores on C2 Proficiency reading comprehension tasks.
This is my first real attempt at action research, I’m probably doing a bunch of stuff wrong, but it’s exciting and my students seem to be up to the challenge! I’ll keep you posted.
If you’d like to follow along with your own students, you can download the first lesson plan, with the baseline text and a micro-lesson on weak forms of “to” and “for”, below:
The part 2 exercise is taken from the Expert Proficiency Coursebook published by Pearson.
Students first complete the exercise from their books, compare answers with a partner and correct the task in open class. The teacher then instructs them to close their books/fold the handout over and try to complete the second “inverted” version. In this version, different words have been removed from the fixed expressions tested in the original text. Other changes have been made in order to fully exploit the text for more high level lexis such as phrasal verbs and fixed expressions. Students can then refer back to the original in order to check their answers.
You can create your own inverted cloze exercises from any text in your course book. Happy inverting!
Cover the original exercise.
Complete this version.
The relationship between the modern consumer and their rubbish is a complex one. Getting (1) ……. of rubbish has come to mean a great (2) ……. more than simply consigning breakfast leftovers (3) ……. a plastic bag. With the advent (4)……. recycling, rubbish has now invaded many people’s personal lives to an unprecedented (5) ……. There was a time, (6) ……. living memory, when rubbish collection was a simple matter – but today’s household rubbish, before being (7) ……., has to be filed and sorted (8) ……. colour-coded containers (9) ……. to its recycling category.
What is (10) ……., we are brought (11) ……. in a rash of irritation by the suggestion that, if rubbish collections were to become more infrequent, people would then make the effort to (12) ……. down on shopping and recycle more. We might be excused for wondering (13) ……. this would be possible. Can people realistically buy fewer eggs or (14) ……. of toothpaste than their lives require?
Recycling is supposed to be good for us. But for some, it’s just a (15) ……. of rubbish.
Read the text below and answer the following questions:
Why You Procrastinate (It Has Nothing to Do With Self-Control)
By Charlotte Lieberman
If you’ve ever put off an important task by, say, alphabetizing your spice drawer, you know it wouldn’t be fair to describe yourself as lazy. After all, alphabetizing requires focus and effort — and hey, maybe you even went the extra mile to wipe down each bottle before putting it back. And it’s not like you’re hanging out with friends or watching Netflix. You’re cleaning — something your parents would be proud of! This isn’t laziness or bad time management. This is procrastination.
When we procrastinate, we’re not only aware that we’re avoiding the task in question, but also that doing so is probably going to have a detrimental effect on our morale. And yet, we do it anyway.
“This is why we say that procrastination is essentially irrational,” said Dr. Fuschia Sirois, professor of psychology at the University of Sheffield. “It doesn’t make sense to do something you know is going to have negative consequences.” She added: “People engage in this pointless cycle of chronic procrastination because of an inability to manage negative moods associated with a task.”
The particular nature of our aversion depends on the given task or situation. It may be due to something inherently unpleasant about the task itself — having to clean a dirty bathroom or organizing a long, boring spreadsheet for your boss. But it might also stem from deeper feelings related to the task, such as self-doubt, low self-esteem, anxiety or insecurity. Staring at a blank document, you might be thinking, I’m not smart enough to write this. Even if I am, what will people think of it? What if I do a bad job?
There’s an entire body of research dedicated to the ruminative, self-blaming thoughts many of us tend to have in the wake of procrastination, which are known as “procrastinatory cognitions.” According to Dr. Sirois, the thoughts we have about procrastination typically exacerbate our distress and stress, which contribute to further procrastination.
Although procrastination offers momentary relief, Dr. Sirois argues that it is what makes the cycle especially vicious. In the immediate present, shelving a task provides relief — “you’ve been rewarded for procrastinating,” Dr. Sirois said. This is precisely why procrastination tends not to be a one-off behavior, but a cycle, one that easily becomes a chronic habit. Over time, chronic procrastination has not only productivity costs, but measurably destructive effects on our mental and physical health, including chronic stress, general psychological distress and low life satisfaction, symptoms of depression and anxiety, unhealthy behavior, chronic illness and even hypertension and cardiovascular disease.
If it seems ironic that we procrastinate to avoid negative feelings, but end up feeling even worse, that’s because it is. And once again, we have evolution to thank. Procrastination is a perfect example of present bias, our hard-wired tendency to prioritize short-term needs ahead of long-term ones.
“We really weren’t designed to think ahead into the further future because we needed to focus on providing for ourselves in the here and now,” said psychologist Dr. Hal Hershfield, a professor of marketing at the U.C.L.A. Anderson School of Management.
His research has shown that, on a neural level, we perceive our “future selves” more like strangers than as parts of ourselves. When we procrastinate, parts of our brains actually think that the tasks we’re putting off — and the accompanying negative feelings that await us on the other side — are somebody else’s problem.
The human ability to procrastinate is deeply existential, as it raises questions about individual agency and how we want to spend our time as opposed to how we actually do. But it’s also a reminder of our commonality — we’re all vulnerable to painful feelings, and most of us just want to be happy with the choices we make. In the end, we have to find a better reward than avoidance — one that can relieve our challenging feelings in the present moment without causing harm to our future selves.
In the first paragraph, the author thinks that procrastinating:
doesn’t include activities like cleaning and organizing, because they are productive.
involves focusing on very detailed tasks that require a lot of effort.
should not be equated to laziness.
consists of activities like watching Netflix and spending time with friends.
Why does the author say that procrastination is irrational?
We are not conscious of the fact that we are about to avoid a task.
We put off the task despite knowing it will affect us negatively.
People repeat the same behaviour for no reason.
Particular tasks evoke strong negative emotions.
According to the text, where does our reluctance to get on with tasks come from?
Deep negative feelings that were once associated with the task.
Some tasks are gruesome and we want to avoid them.
The dullness of some tasks makes us bored and unmotivated.
It is probably not contingent on one specific origin.
What does the article say about the vicious cycle of procrastination?
Procrastinating provides an immediate and prolonged sense of relief.
The behaviour only takes place once because it has negative consequences.
It is a consequence of the negative effects on our physical and mental health.
Putting off a task can reinforce the procrastinating behaviour.
What is the relationship between evolution and procrastination, according to Dr. Hershfield?
Brains have evolved to place current demands above future consequences.
Procrastination is a product of recent evolution.
It is ironic that we evolved to be procrastinators.
We evolved to avoid negative feelings that may arise in the future.
What is the neural justification for procrastination, according to Dr. Hershfield’s research?
We avoid thinking about the future, even if it affects us in the present.
Putting off a task provides relief from stress and anxiety.
Our brains assign the responsibility for the task to a different entity.
The pursuit of happiness is the most important goal for our brains.
My C2 proficiency students have just taken a full mock exam and one of the issues their writings had in common was the lack of “hooks” in their articles and reviews to draw the reader in an encourage them to keep reading. So, I put together this lesson plan, based heavily on this great article by Suzanne Davis.
Have students read the opening paragraphs by Gary Provost to each other out loud and ask them to reflect on the message. Encourage them to attempt a similar range of sentence lengths in their own articles.
Have students refer to the 7 steps to success while writing their article for homework.
Lead students through the different types of hook and field questions.
Draw students’ attention to the need to use an engaging title.
Have students read the writing task and underline the content points. Then put them in pairs and have them discuss which hook would work best for this particular task. Then have them choose an expression about fame for their title.
Some possible answers could be:
Story hook: Imagine the scene, you just want to nip to the shops for a pint of milk but no sooner have you stepped out the door than a mob of paparazzi are hassling you. The constant click, click, click of the shutters, the blinding flashes fill your eyes, it’s enough to make you question if it’s all worth it.
Metaphor hook: Fame is, undoubtedly, a double-edged sword; while it bestows upon you all the riches your heart could desire, it slices away such basic comforts as privacy and anonymity.
Quotation hook: As Clive James once said “a life without fame can be a good life, but fame without a life is no life at all”
Writing Part 2 – 7 Steps to Success
Read the task, underline content points.
Organise content points into paragraphs.
WHAT are you going to say? Add notes to paragraphs. STAY ON TOPIC!
HOW are you going to say it?
Range of structures: What impressive grammar are you going to use?
Inversions (not only/no sooner/not until/seldom)
Inverted conditionals (Were I to…./Had they known…)
Cleft sentences (What impressed me most was…)
Participle clauses (Having visited the city before, I know what to expect. Being a massive fan of cheese, I had a whale of a time in France)
Double comparatives (The more cheese I ate, the fatter I became. The more I studied the more I understood about French culture.)
Range of vocabulary:
Phrasal verbs. (switch over, zone out, sit back)
Idioms/similes (like watching paint dry/to be on the edge of one’s seat)
Relevant vocabulary to the topic (chat show, current affairs, couch potato, remote control)
Other expressions (Something for everyone, a smorgasbord of options, kill time, etc.)
Forms and conventions: Report/proposal – paragraph titles, letter conventions.
An Article “Hook”
Capture the reader’s attention with your introduction, draw them in and make them want to read more.
The Story Hook
Throw the reader straight into a narrative or story related to the topic. The story should be in the 1st person, be descriptive and intriguing:
I got off the train and pulled my luggage behind me. A cab pulled up to the curb, and the driver got out. He lifted my luggage and said, “Miss, I’m just going to put your stuff in the boot.” I didn’t know what he meant until I saw him open the car’s trunk. Then I realized the boot means car trunk. I got in the cab, wondering how many other words would be different in England.
Start in the middle of the most exciting part, then go back later:
“Boom, boom, boom,” The sound of my heart beating faster and faster echoed in my ears. How on earth had I got myself into this situation? You might ask. Twenty feet underwater with nothing but a thin metal cage between me and perhaps the most terrifying apex predator on the planet, the great white shark….
Well, it had all started two weeks previously when….
The Descriptive Hook
Similar to the story hook but focus more on describing one moment/thing in great detail. Leave the reader wanting to know more about it.
The dog howled in pain and limped along the side of the road. His leg was cut and blood streamed down his leg.
Doesn’t this scene make you curious about what will happen to the dog?
The leather strap of the ancient watch was creased and faded from long years in the sunlight. Down the glass of the face ran a long, roughly vertical crack, recalling the blunt impact which had stopped the hands of the timepiece dead all those years ago.
Don’t you want to hear the story of the watch?
The Metaphor/Simile Hook
The metaphor/simile hook engages your readers because it makes them think about a topic in a different way.
A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly compares one thing to another, but these two things seem unrelated. An example of a metaphor is: Her boyfriend is a rat.
The boyfriend is not really a rat, but he behaves like one.
A simile is like a metaphor. Both compare two unrelated things to each other, but a simile uses the words like or as to connect them. For example: Writing a research paper is like running a marathon when it’s 95 degrees Fahrenheit.
If your article topic is on business blogging you could write the metaphor hook:
A business blog is a magnet pulling clients to a company.
Or the simile hook:
A business blog is like a magnet that pulls clients to a company.
Metaphor hooks: Marriage is a journey, with its ups and downs. They say that silence is golden. Laughter is the best medicine.
Simile hooks: Love is like a fine wine, it matures with age. My grandmother has always been as tough as an old boot. The dress fit her like a glove, there was no denying it
The Quotation Hook
This is a hook where you begin your article with a quotation. The quotation could be from a famous person, but it doesn’t have to be. You can quote anyone if it connects to what you’re writing about.
If you are writing about the topic of education you could begin with: Nelson Mandela said, “Education is the most powerful weapon you can use to change the world.”
If you want to use a quotation for a hook, make sure you quote the words exactly. Choose quotations where the words are striking, powerful, and/ or memorable.
“The journey of a thousand miles begins with one step.” – Lao Tzu
“That which does not kill us makes us stronger.” – Friedrich Nietzsche
“Life is what happens when you’re busy making other plans.” – John Lennon
“When the going gets tough, the tough get going.” – Joe Kennedy
“You must be the change you wish to see in the world.” – Mahatma Gandhi
“You only live once, but if you do it right, once is enough.” – Mae West
“You miss 100 percent of the shots you never take.” – Wayne Gretzky
“Strive not to be a success, but rather to be of value.” – Albert Einstein
“Life is like a box of chocolates. You never know what you’re going to get.” – Forrest Gump
Article Titles – Keep it Catchy
Most proficiency articles require a catchy title, try to include:
Taking the rough with the smooth
Life in the limelight
Coming face-to-face with a man-eater!
The long arm of the law
You recently read an article from an online youth magazine on the pressures of fame for young celebrities. The magazine has invited readers to respond to the topic with a short article of their own, which answers the following questions…
Is becoming famous worth it?
Do male and female celebrities experience the same pressures?
What can be done to shield young celebrities from the drawbacks of fame?
This is a vocab lesson plan based on an exercise from the Expert Proficiency Course book. It expands a short exercise from the book out into a full activity with exam practice and a speaking task. Students learn expressions with the words brain, face, head and wits and put them into practice in a key word transformation exercise and a discussion activity. Download the handout with key below:
Complete the expressions in the sentences with brain, face, head, or mind.
I couldn’t tell you the exact figure off the top of my …… but I think we sold about 10,000 units last year.
The neighbour just called to say they’ve found our cat, that’s a load off my ……
She was at her …… end trying to figure out how to control her 14 year-old son.
He presented the new model to the shareholders but she’s the real …… behind it.
We were lucky enough to come …… to …… with a Bengal tiger.
I have to admit, it never crossed my …… to ask Brian for help with the artwork, but it turns out he’s brilliant!
If they don’t turn that music down, I’m going to go over there and give them a piece of my ……
He’s insufferable these days, all the money and praise has clearly gone to his ……
My laptop has a …… of its own, it shuts down whenever it wants.
The students struggled to keep a straight …… while the teacher was having difficulty playing the video.
That part of town is a bit dodgy, you need to keep your …… about you if you go there.
Trying to get the boys to tidy their bedrooms I always feel like I’m banging my …… against a brick wall.
The boss had to think of a way to break his promise without losing ……
In order to save …… the company recalled all the faulty products and gave their customers full refunds.
I’ve been racking my …… all night trying to remember my PIN number but I just can’t.
Become arrogant after success From memory A relief Thinking really hard Very stressed, not know what to do Be within touching distance Suffer damage to one’s reputation/social standing Tell sb off/reprimand
Wasting my time, actions have no effect Maintain one’s reputation Occurred to me The person who thought of an idea Seem capable of thought and independent action Not laugh/show signs of amusement Be alert/keep an eye out
Complete the sentences with one of the expressions.
I’ve been trying really hard to remember where I left my keys.
I’ve …………………..………….. to remember where I left my keys.
Being embarrassed in front of other teenagers of the same age can be devastating for teenagers.
It can be devastating for teenagers ……………………..……………..….. Group.
It’s vital that you be careful, don’t reveal any unnecessary information in the meeting.
It’s vital that you ……………………..……………..….. any information slip in the meeting.
I can’t think of any examples right now from memory but I’m sure there are loads.
I can’t recall any examples off ……………………..……………..….. in no doubt that there are loads.
Steve Jobs was the one who came up with the idea of the Ipod.
Steve Jobs ……………………..……………..….. the Ipod.
“Don’t let money change you!” said the old rapper to the newbies.
The old rapper advised the newbies …………………………………………………..
My car stereo does whatever it likes, there’s no controlling it.
My car stereo ……………………………………………….., there’s no controlling it.
Complete the questions with one of the expressions, then answer the questions with a partner.
What sort of things do politicians and celebrities tend to do to …… face after a scandal? Does it usually work?
If your neighbours are keeping you up, do you tend to ……. them a piece of your mind? Or grin and bear it?
Think of a time when you struggled to ……. a straight face in a serious situation. Did you manage it?
Can you think of a time when you lost ……. in front of your peers when you were a teenager? Can you laugh about it now?
Are you good at remembering names, figures and dates ……. the top of your head? Or do you often need to look them up?
Do you need to ……. your brain to put names to faces? Are there any things you struggle to remember?
Do the brains ……. the biggest inventions always get the credit? Can you think of any examples of people who didn’t get the credit they deserved?
What are you most stressed about at the moment? If you could wave a magic wand and make one of your problems disappear, what would be the biggest ……. off your mind?
Are you someone who tends to have your wits ……. you when you’re walking down the street? Or do you have your head in the clouds?
Do any of your electronic devices/appliances have minds of their …….? What sort of things do they do?
Do people tend to do what you ask them to? Or is it sometimes like ……. your head against a brick wall? Give some examples?
Have your parents ever been ….. their wits end with your, or one of your sibling’s behaviour? Why? What did they do?
What’s the best way to stop praise or money ……. to a person’s head? Do you think it’s inevitable?
Have you ever received help or advice from an unexpected source? Had it ever ……. your mind to turn to that particular person?
This is a lesson plan for students preparing to take the C2 Proficiency exam. Students look at some typical phrasal verbs, collocations and dependent prepositions that often come up in the exam and put them into practice in conversation. Download the handout, key and accompanying slides below:
First of all students have to choose from two prepositions to complete the phrasal verbs so that it fits the context of the sentence. Then have them match the phrasal verbs to the definitions in the box below. You could then have students test each other, one says a definition, the other has to recall the phrasal verb.
Show students slide 2 of the presentation and instruct them to turn their handouts over and attempt to recall the missing words in the questions from memory. In this exercise they are required to recall the verb, rather than the preposition. Once they have completed the exercise, have them ask and answer the questions in pairs or small groups and then share any funny/interesting discoveries in open class.
Students then repeat the process for the dependent prepositions. However, in this case, rather than matching definitions, they match synonyms of the collocations to transform the sentence. I most cases they are direct synonyms that fit the same grammatical pattern but in a couple of cases they will need to make changes to the sentence, instruct them to check carefully if the synonym fits.
Slide 4-5 have a similar gapped questions task to the first one for students to complete in pairs. The final exercise contains more expressions and phrasal verbs with prepositions. Have students complete the exercise in pairs, then after checking in open class, have students come up with gapped questions for their classmates to complete. Tell them that their questions must be open-ended and designed to spark conversation, for example:
Are there any things that you’ve done so many times that you can now do ….. auto-pilot?
Feel free to post any of your students’ questions in the comments! Let me know how it goes!
Want to do Christmas activities but your students have an exam coming up? Don’t worry, I’ve got you covered. Here’s some Christmassy proficiency speaking part 2 tasks. Students work in pairs on a timed collaborative task. Download the PowerPoint below:
They’ve made their demands and they’re not going to back down. – stop demanding something
My car always breaks down when I don’t have enough money to get it repaired. – stop working
They broke/split up last year but then they got back together. – to end; to separate (a marriage / a relationship / etc.)
My parents died when I was very young so my grandma brought me up. – raise/educate/care for (a child)
I bumped/ran into an old friend from uni in the street. – to meet someone unexpectedly
The situation calls for calm negotiations and cool heads from everyone involved. – demand / request
They’ve had to call off the match due to bad weather. – cancel (an event)
I’m just going to carry on working on my presentation, but let me know if you need anything. – continue
The new hairstyle has really caught on with teenagers in my town. catch on – to become popular (an idea or a style);
I kept dropping hints about what I wanted for my birthday but my wife didn’t catch on. – to understand/realise after a long time
I bought him a pint to try to cheer him up – make happier
I came across my old school books while I was clearing out the attic. – find by chance
He came into quite a lot of money when his grandparents passed away. come into (money) – inherit
Come round after school and we’ll work on the science project together. – come to your house
I’ve come up with a great idea for our Halloween costumes. – think of and suggest an idea
The topic of a pay rise came up in my meeting with the boss. – be mentioned, arise or appear (in class / an exam / a meeting)
Don’t be late! Everyone is counting on you. – to rely on
My New Year’s resolution is to cut down on fast food.– reduce the amount you consume
Sorry, the call got cut off when we went through a tunnel. – separate / isolate / interrupt
My doctor has told me I need to cut out all processed meats from my diet. – stop doing / eating something
The child was struggling to do up his shoelaces. We’re doing up our house this summer. – fasten, button up clothes; repair, redecorate or modernize a building or room
We all dressed up as monsters for Halloween.– put on different clothes in order to disguise yourself
My Dad dropped by on his way home to work to say hello. – to visit informally or unexpectedly
He also came to drop off my Christmas presents. The taxi dropped us off outside the airport. – to take something (or someone) to a place and leave it there
He didn’t enjoy the economics degree course and dropped out after 6 months. – stop taking part in (a competition, a university, etc.)
We got lost and ended up in a completely different town. We were supposed to go out clubbing but we ended up staying in. – an end result of something planned or unplanned
She fell for him the moment she met him. – fall in love with
She fell out with her younger sister over who was going to look after grandma at Christmas. – argue and stop being friendly with someone
Yesterday she found out that she passed her law degree. – discover
I wrote them an email to follow up my complaint from the previous day. – find out more about something; take further action
I get along/on really well with all my teachers. – have a good relationship with
We just want to get away for the weekend and have some peace and quiet. – go on a short holiday/break
He stole €10 from his mum’s purse and got away with it, she blamed his brother. – not be punished for doing something
I don’t earn much but it’s enough to get by. – manage to survive / live
Stop chatting and get on with your work! – start or continue doing something (especially work)
It took him a long time to get over her, I think he still loves her. – recover after the end of a relationship with someone
I’m still getting over a nasty cold but I should be fine in a couple of days. – recover from
I get together with my old uni friends every 6 months or so. – meet (usually for social reasons)
I’m cleaning out my garage this weekend, I’m going to get rid of so much old stuff. – eliminate/discard
He accidently gave away the surprise birthday party to the birthday girl, what an idiot! – reveal
Hey! That’s my bag! Give it back – return
Don’t forget to give/hand in your essays at the end of the class. – submit (homework, etc.)
The kids wouldn’t stop asking for an ice cream so I finally gave in and let them have one. – agree to something you do not want to
The rotting fruit was giving off a nasty smell. (a smell) – produce and send into the air
The receptionist gave out all the most important information to the guests. – announce or broadcast information
They’re giving/handing out free samples of delicious cheese at the supermarket. – distribute to a group of people
The sudoku puzzle was too difficult so I gave up and read a book instead. – to stop trying to do something (often because it is too difficult)
A: We should decorate the kitchen. B: Yeah, I’d go along with that. – support an idea or agree with someone’s opinion
The milk has gone off, we’ll have to buy some more. A bomb went off outside the airport, luckily nobody was hurt. – explode; become bad (food)
The poker game went on for hours and hours. – to continue
Have you heard? Charlie is going out with Kathy. – have a romantic relationship with someone
My Dad’s threatening to take away my car keys if I don’t tidy my room but I don’t think he will go through with it. – complete a promise or plan
My best friend from primary school and I grew apart over the years and now we hardly speak. – get distant from someone, like a friend
When I grow up, I want to be a firefighter. – slowly become an adult
We hung around outside the concert hall for 2 hours after the show trying to get an autograph. – to wait or spend time somewhere, doing nothing
I’m just going to hang out with my friends tonight. – spend time relaxing (informal)
Don’t leave your shirts on the floor, you need to hang them up. She finished the call and then hung up. – to hang clothes or an object on a hook or line; to end a phone call
Go down this street and then head for the big church, your hotel is right next door to it. – go towards
My shyness always holds me back in social situations. – prevent someone from making progress
We need to hurry up! Our train leaves in five minutes. – do something more quickly
Just keep on walking this way and you’ll get to the station in no time. – to continue
Where were you on Saturday? I really needed your help and you let me down. – disappoint
The police decided to let the kids off with a warning because it was their first offence. – give someone a lighter punishment than they expected (or not punish at all)
I can’t come out, I need to look after my baby brother. – take care of
I hate it when people look down on those who are less fortunate than them. – feel superior to
I’ve been looking for a flat for 2 months but haven’t found one I like yet. – try to find
I’m really looking forward to Christmas this year. – feel happy about something that is going to happen
The police are looking into the case of the missing dog. – investigate
I had never heard of my Dad’s favorite footballer, I had to look him up on wikipedia. – find information about (e.g. a word in a dictionary)
I’ve always looked up to my mum, she’s very resilient. – admire and respect
They gave us free tickets to a different show to make up for the cancellation. – compensate for
They fell out over something stupid but now they’ve made up. – become friends again
He’s always making up ridiculous stories and excuses for why he’s late. (something) – invent (stories, excuses)
Ok, thanks for that report Jon, now let’s move on to Sarah’s presentation. – change to a different job, activity or place
I moved out of my parents house when I was 18. – stop living in a house or flat
He was so dehydrated that he passed out and woke up in the back of an ambulance. – lose consciousness
When are you going to pay back the money you owe me? – return money
Don’t worry, my parents are going to pay for dinner. – purchase
They’ve finally managed to pay off the mortgage on the house. She got into Oxford University, all of her hard work has paid off! – finish paying for something; have a positive result from hard work
Mum, it’s raining really hard, can you come and pick me up from the train station? – meet / collect someone (e.g. at the station / from school)
At the end of the presentation our boss pointed out several obvious mistakes we had made. – to draw attention to something or someone
Vicky! Come and put away your toys before you have dinner. – put something back in the correct place
I’m going to the dentist tomorrow, I’ve been putting it off for months. – postpone
They put on a big show to raise money for charity. (an event/a show) – organize an event
Put your coat on, it’s cold outside. (clothes /make up) – place something on your body
I put on quite a lot of weight during lockdown. (weight) – increase (weight)
The firefighters were finally able to put the fire out. – extinguish (e.g. fire)
My uncle can put us up for a couple of nights while we’re in London. (for the night) – accommodate
Put your hand up if you have any questions. (your hand) – lift into the air
I’m not going to put up with anymore lateness from those kids. – tolerate
The car rental company tried to rip us off but I was having none of it. – charge someone too much for something
We ran out of petrol in the middle of nowhere, it was terrifying. – use up (e.g. money, petrol, time)
We had to set off at 4am, it was horrible. – start a journey
We set up the company in 1995 and it’s still going strong to this day. – establish / start (e.g. a company)
Dan! Stop showing off and pass us the ball, we’re losing 4-0. – try to impress people by telling or showing them what you are capable of
They’ve had to shut down 5 stores in the area because sales have dropped. – to close
We need to sort out accommodation for our trip to Paris. – arrange or order by classes or categories; find a solution
BBC stands for the British Broadcasting Corporation. – to represent
His ginger hair really makes him stand out from the rest of the boys in his class. – be easy to see because of being different
I’d say I take after my Dad in my looks and my Mum in my personality. (someone) – resemble a member of your family in appearance, behaviour or character
Please take your feet off the seat, your shoes are very dirty. – to remove from a surface or your body (clothes)
Our plane takes off at 9pm. – leave the ground (e.g. a plane)
She’s taken on a lot of extra responsibilities in her new job. – attempt something new; employ
A new manager has taken over the department. – take control of
I took to ice-skating really quickly and now I’ve signed up for weekly classes.– start to like, especially after only a short time
I first took up volleyball when I was in secondary school. – start doing (a hobby)
The teacher told us off for being late. – speak angrily to someone who has done something wrong
I’ve decided to throw away my old sofa, unless you want it. – get rid of something you do not need any more
The weather on the mountain got really bad so we had to turn back. – return towards the place you started from
They’ve turned down our offer for the house, they want more money. – reject or refuse
On a full moon he turns into a werewolf! They’ve turned my favourite restaurant into a Burger King! – to transform
Don’t forget to turn/switch off the lights when you leave. – to disconnect (e.g. a computer)
He switched/turned on the TV and sat down to watch the match. – to connect (e.g. the TV)
Our bus didn’t turn up for 2 hours. – arrive, usually unexpectedly, early or late
He always uses up all the toilet roll and doesn’t replace it. – finish a supply of something
I’ve completely worn out my old football boots, I need to get some new ones. – to use something until it becomes unusable
I work out 3 times a week at the gym. The students struggled to work out the complicated equations. The police couldn’t work out how the burglars got into the house. – think about and find a solution; do exercise
This is a vocabulary and conversation lesson for C1/C2 students. Students look at 18 animal idioms and put them into practice in conversation and an optional writing exercise. Download the handouts below:
This is a lesson plan for C2 students preparing to take the Cambridge Proficiency exam. Students will learn exam techniques to tackle part 7 of paper 1, the multiple matching exercise. The example task is taken from CUP test book 1. Download the PowerPoint and task below:
Lead students through the steps in the PowerPoint. Students should focus on the list of questions first, underlining key words and trying to paraphrase the questions into simpler language where possible. The PowerPoint contains some examples of paraphrasing. Students should then tackle the reading texts in order while referring back to their notes. Encourage them to underline the parts of the text that they think answer each question.
Students should complete the first paraphrasing exercise in pairs. Then for the reading, they should work individually, set a time limit of 15 minutes for them to complete the exercise. Students should then compare their answers and show their partner the sections of the text that they have underlined for each question.
You will find the answer key and annotated copy of the texts on the final slides of the PowerPoint. You should set students another part 7 for homework so that they can put the technique into practice.